Plain Language Summaries

Plain Language Summaries of Campbell’s systematic reviews are now available. These summaries are published as part of our commitment to helping people use and interpret research evidence.
Crime and Justice
Education
International Development
Social Welfare

This Campbell systematic review examines the effects of closed circuit television (CCTV) on property crime and violent crime. The review reports on whether using CCTV results in crime displacement, and also assesses whether using CCTV leads to the spread of crime prevention benefits. The authors found 44 evaluations. The studies were from the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Canada, Norway and Sweden. Most of the studies (34) were from the United Kingdom.

This Campbell systematic review assesses the effects of psychosocial interventions for school refusal. The review summarizes the findings from eight studies.

This Campbell systematic review examines the effects of Payment for Environmental Services (PES) programmes on deforestation and poverty, and whether environmental and poverty reduction goals conflict with one another. The review summarizes evidence from 11 studies covering six PES programmes in four countries.

This Campbell systematic review assesses the effects of advocacy interventions on intimate partner violence and women's wellbeing. The review summarizes findings from 13 studies.

Plain Language Summaries of Campbell’s systematic reviews are now available. These summaries are published as part of our commitment to helping people use and interpret research evidence.

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  • Crime and Justice


    Problem-oriented policing has a modest impact on crime and disorder

    Problem-oriented policing (POP) focuses police work on ‘problems’ as opposed to calls or crime incidents and it requires police to proactively develop response to crime and disorder problems based on a careful analysis of contributing factors. The approach has had a tremendous impact on American policing and is now widely implemented in the US and other countries. The classic implementation of POP follows the ‘SARA’ model of problem-solving (Scanning, Analysis, Response, Assessment). This review assesses the effects of problem- oriented policing on crime and disorder based on the existing evaluation literature.

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  • Education


    The Tools of the Mind curriculum improves self-regulation and academic skills in early childhood

    Tools of the Mind (Tools) is an early childhood education curriculum, which involves structured make-believe play scenarios and a series of other curricular activities. Tools aims to promote and improve children’s self-regulation and academic skills by having a dual focus on self-regulation and other social-emotional skills in educational contexts. This review examines the evidence on the effectiveness of tools in promoting children’s self-regulation and academic skills, in order to inform its implementation in schools.

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  • International Development


    Farmer field schools improve agricultural practices, yields and incomes in small pilot programmes, but not in large-scale programmes

    The purpose of farmer field schools is to improve farmers’ skills to empower them to make better decisions. Different programmes have different objectives, but they often aim to reduce pesticides use, promote better farming practices and boost yields or income. Field schools use facilitators who employ participatory, experiential learning methods over an entire growing season. For example, farmer field schools use ‘practice plots’ where farmers can compare results from different farming methods. In contrast to traditional agricultural extension projects, which mainly teach simple practices such as applying fertilisers, farmer field schools often teach holistic techniques, such as integrated pest management. Farmer field schools have been widely used across Asia, Africa and Latin America, reaching an estimated 10–15 million farmers. This review examines the effectiveness of farmer field schools in changing farmer knowledge and practice, and improving yields, income, environmental impact and farmer empowerment.

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  • Social Welfare


    Interventions to reduce female genital mutilation/cutting affect attitudes, not practices

    FGM/C interventions aim to reduce the occurrence of FGM/C among practicing communities. This review examines the empirical research on the effectiveness of FGM/C interventions. The review also examines the contextual factors that may help explain the effectiveness, or lack thereof, of such interventions.

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